Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis of Lower Limbs and the New-released Practical Application Product


The Epidemiology of Venous Thromboembolism

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a venous return disorder caused by abnormal blood coagulation in the deep veins, which often occurs in the lower extremities. The shedding of thrombus can cause pulmonary embolism (PE). DVT and PE are collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism (VTE), which are manifestations of the same disease in different stages. The main adverse consequences of DVT are PE and post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), which can significantly affect the quality of life of patients and even lead to death.

The main causes of DVT are venous wall damage, slow blood flow, and hypercoagulability. Risk factors include primary and secondary factors. DVT is more common after major surgery or severe trauma, long-term bed rest, limb immobilization, tumor patients, etc.

According to the research, venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs for the first time in ≈100 persons per 100,000 each year in the United States. Approximately one-third of patients with symptomatic VTE manifest pulmonary embolism (PE), whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT) alone. Despite anticoagulant therapy, VTE recurs frequently in the first few months after the initial event, with a recurrence rate of ≈7% at 6 months. Death occurs in ≈6% of DVT cases and 12% of PE cases within 1 month of diagnosis. Overall, ≈25% to 50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor. Early mortality after VTE is strongly associated with presentation as PE, advanced age, cancer, and underlying cardiovascular disease.

Physical Precautions for DVT

Compared with no preventive measures, the incidence of DVT in postoperative patients can be significantly reduced after prophylaxis with intermittent pneumatic compression pump (IPC), antithrombotic gradient pressure band (GCS) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Therefore, it is necessary to prevent postoperative DVT through reasonable preventive measures.

Studies have demonstrated that venous stasis and complications associated with pharmacological prophylaxis can be reduced by applying physical prophylaxis. Gradient compression stockings (GCS) and intermittent pneumatic compression devices (IPC) are the most commonly used methods of physical thromboprophylaxis. But IPC can sometimes lead to peroneal nerve palsy or ventricular septal syndrome from incorrect use, and GCS can sometimes become a tourniquet from incorrect use such as too tight compression, causing venous stasis, skin ruptures, ulcers and blisters and other complications. At the same time, both methods may make the patient feel hot, contracted, and itchy, resulting in poor patient compliance with treatment. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is often overlooked as a physical thromboprophylaxis with relatively few complications and high patient compliance. It has been demonstrated that NMES has a great role in preventing deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity.

The Action Mechanism of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation(NMES)

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), an FDA-approved method of postoperative DVT prevention, involves the application of electrical stimulation to relevant points on the body, using electrodes placed on the surface of the skin to deliver electrical pulses to directly induce Muscle contractions are caused by muscle contractions or indirectly through the nerves that innervate muscle groups. The activity of the calf muscles compresses the muscles and surrounding veins, raising venous blood pressure and forcing blood back to the heart. In addition, contracting the calf muscles can increase blood flow to the lower extremities to meet the metabolic demands of skeletal muscle movement, and the increased blood flow to the lower extremities caused by the activation of the calf muscle pump can prevent blood pooling and stagnation in the lower extremities, thereby preventing DVT. Studies have shown that NMES increases mean venous velocity, peak venous velocity, and volume flow comparable to or greater than IPC. Neuromuscular electrical stimulators have emerged as a new option for the prevention of lower extremity DVT.

DVT Prevention Device

DVT-A is a neuromuscular electrical stimulator designed and manufactured by Haichaung Medical, which is based on the low-frequency NMES technology to stimulate common peroneal nerve and activate muscle pump for preventing lower extremities DVT. 

We proudly released this product last year and have got many distribution contracts til now in China. Please refer to the page for product details.

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